[1]单平基.分解、舍弃抑或改造:《民法典》编纂中土地承包经营权的定位[J].南京农业大学学报(社科版),2020,20(03):123-131.
 SHAN Pingji.Decompose, Abandon or Transform: The Orientation of Land Contractual Management Right in Civil Code[J].Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University(Social Science),2020,20(03):123-131.
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分解、舍弃抑或改造:《民法典》编纂中土地承包经营权的定位()
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南京农业大学学报(社科版)[ISSN:1006-6977/CN:61-1281/TN]

卷:
20
期数:
2020年03期
页码:
123-131
栏目:
土地问题
出版日期:
2020-04-28

文章信息/Info

Title:
Decompose, Abandon or Transform: The Orientation of Land Contractual Management Right in Civil Code
作者:
单平基
东南大学 法学院, 江苏 南京 210096
Author(s):
SHAN Pingji
关键词:
《民法典》“三权”分置土地承包经营权土地承包权土地经营权
Keywords:
Civil CodeSeparation of Three Rights to Rural LandLand Contractual Management RightContractual Right of LandManagerial Right of Land
分类号:
D922.32
摘要:
《民法典》编纂中,农地"三权"分置既不应分解、架空或舍弃土地承包经营权,也不宜将其准所有权化或认定为自物权,而应坚持土地承包经营权而非"土地承包权"的称谓并充实其权能,使其回归本来的用益物权属性。《民法典(草案)》《民法典》物权编(草案)二审稿、一审稿和《农村土地承包法》关于土地承包经营权的制度设计存在一定缺陷。《民法典》中的农地"三权"分置应采用"农地集体所有权(自物权)、土地承包经营权(用益物权)、土地经营权(债权)",而非"农地集体所有权(自物权)、土地承包权(用益物权)、土地经营权(用益物权)"之结构。在农地法制改革中,应坚持和落实农地集体所有权,而不能将其虚置;不能将土地承包经营权认定为扮演所有权的角色,而应坚持其为派生自农地集体所有权的用益物权定位,并以充实其用益物权权能为基点进行农村土地制度改造;土地经营权应定位为分离自土地承包经营权的债权性权利。其中,土地承包经营权这一权利定性和权利称谓,不应受土地经营权生成和定性的影响,也不应被"土地承包权"所替代。在充实土地承包经营权之用益物权权能前提下,经由债权定性的土地经营权的生成和流转,助推农业适度规模经营和乡村振兴的实现。
Abstract:
The land contractual management right should not be decomposed, suspended or abandoned, nor should it bequasi-owned or identified as jus in re propria, but the title of land contractual management right (rather than “contractual right of land”) should be persisted and its power should be enriched to return to the original usufructuary right in Civil Code. There are some defects on the land contractual management right in Civil Code (Draft) and the Rural Land Contract Law. The structure of collective ownership of land (jus in re propria) - land contractual management right(usufructuary right) - managerial right of land (creditor’s rights) shall be adopted for the separation of three rights to rural land. In the legal reform of farmland, we should insist on the collective ownership of rural land and can’t use it as a decoration. Land contractual management right shall not be “quasi-proprietary” or defined as “property right”. We should stick to its orientation of usufructuary right derived from the collective ownership of rural land and reform the rural land system based on enriching its usufructuary right. Managerial right of land should be defined as creditor’s right separated from land contractual management right. Among them, the qualitative and right title of land contractual management right is not influenced by the generation and qualitative of managerial right of land, nor should it be replaced by contractual right of land. On the basis of enriching the power of the usufructuary right of the land contractual management right, the managerial right of land should be characterized as the creditor’s right and allowed to circulate, so as to realize the aim of moderate scale management of modern agriculture and the revitalization of the countryside.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2019-07-25。
基金项目:教育部哲学社会科学研究后期资助项目"农地‘三权分置’权利构造:学说与规范"(18JHQ065)
作者简介:单平基,男,东南大学法学院副教授,东南大学最高人民检察院民事检察研究基地主任
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01