[1]唐浩,张聪.土地制度应对农村人口老龄化:挑战与思路[J].南京农业大学学报(社科版),2022,22(04):34-44.
 TANG Hao,ZHANG Cong.How does Land System Cope with Ageing of Rural China?[J].Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University(Social Science),2022,22(04):34-44.
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土地制度应对农村人口老龄化:挑战与思路()
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南京农业大学学报(社科版)[ISSN:1006-6977/CN:61-1281/TN]

卷:
22
期数:
2022年04期
页码:
34-44
栏目:
农村老龄化专题研究
出版日期:
2022-07-29

文章信息/Info

Title:
How does Land System Cope with Ageing of Rural China?
作者:
唐浩 张聪
湖南农业大学 经济学院, 湖南 长沙 410128
Author(s):
TANG Hao ZHANG Cong
关键词:
人口老龄化土地制度承包地集体建设用地宅基地
Keywords:
Population AgeingLand SystemContracted LandCollective Construction LandHomestead
分类号:
F301.1;C913.6
摘要:
积极应对农村人口老龄化关乎高质量发展、国家安全和社会和谐稳定,更是全面推进乡村振兴和加快实现农业农村现代化的现实条件和内在要求。土地是农村老龄人口拥有的最重要的资源和资产,改革和完善土地制度是积极应对农村人口老龄化的重要举措和办法。土地对于农村老龄人口来说,具有经济上的保障功能、家庭与社会地位的维护功能、身心价值与健康的支持功能。当前土地制度在政策和执行层面没有很好地考虑如何应对农村人口老龄化问题,甚至在改革过程中出现排斥农村老龄人口的现象。另外,对于低龄、中龄和高龄不同老龄人口,土地制度缺乏精准化的应对措施和办法。研究认为,对于低龄、中龄农村老龄人口,承包地制度既要严格保护他们的承包权,也要让他们行使好经营权,更要防范违背他们意愿的经营权流转。对于高龄农村老龄人口,需要完善承包地退出机制;宅基地制度需要充分保障农村老龄人口的居住权益,发挥宅基地的生产资料功能,流转宅基地(含住房)必须尊重农村老龄人口的意愿。对于有宅基地退出意愿的高龄农村老龄人口,需要完善退出机制;改革和完善集体建设用地使用制度,为乡村社区养老提供土地和资金。如何在积极应对农村人口老龄化、提高土地市场化配置效率、实现农业农村现代化三者之间取得平衡,是需要进一步思考的问题。
Abstract:
Efforts at actively coping with the ageing of rural China is not only related to high-quality development, national security, and social harmony and stability, but also the actual conditions and inherent requirements for comprehensively promoting rural revitalization and accelerating the realization of agricultural and rural modernization. Land is the most important resource and asset owned by the rural elderly population. Reforming and improving the land system is an important method to actively deal with ageing of rural China. For the rural elderly population, land has the function of economic security, the function of maintaining family and social status, and the function of supporting physical and mental values and health. In the current land system, attention is not paid to how to deal with the ageing of rural China at the policy and implementation level, and even the phenomenon of exclusion of the rural ageing population has appeared in the reform process. In addition, the land system lacks precise response for the low-age, middle-age, and old-age populations. Our results show that for the low-age and middle-aged rural population, the contracted land system must not only strictly protect their land contract rights, but also allow them to exercise their land management rights, and more importantly, prevent the transfer of land management rights that go against their wishes. For the old-age rural population, it is necessary to improve the exit mechanism of the contracted land, and the homestead system needs to fully protect the housing rights of the rural elderly population and give full play to the function of the production materials of the homestead. The transfer of the homestead (including housing) must respect the wishes of the rural elderly population. For the elderly rural population who are willing to withdraw from homesteads, it is necessary to improve the exit mechanism, and reform and improve the collective construction land use system to provide land and funds for the elderly care in rural communities. How to seek balance in actively coping with the ageing of rural China, improving the efficiency of land market allocation, and realizing the agricultural and rural modernization is a question that requires further pondering.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2022-02-09。
基金项目:湖南省社会科学基金项目"土地延包中坚持和实现集体所有权问题研究"(21YBA080)
作者简介:唐浩,男,湖南农业大学经济学院副院长,副教授;张聪,女,湖南农业大学经济学院硕士生。
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01